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#1




STEM Quiz #1
Here's a quiz that's mostly geometrical, but you may need to do a bit of mechanical/engineering research to get to the answers.
The Vex Versaplanetary gearbox offers single stages ranging from 3:1 reduction down to 10:1 reduction. These gearboxes are driven at the sun gear, have a fixed annular gear, and drive output on the planetary carrier. Assuming that there are at least three planet gears of the same size as each other, what are the theoretical highest and lowest possible reductions possible for a single stage gearbox of this type? For purposes of this calculation, you may allow the teeth to be infinitesimally small, so that this becomes a "roller box" rather than a gear box. As with Ether's quizzes, I'm not looking for full mathematical rigor, but show enough of your work that I can tell where your numbers are coming from. 
#2




Re: STEM Quiz #1
The lower limit as Sun Gear diameter approaches Ring Gear diameter should be 2:1, as the ratio for a planetary gearbox as described is R/S+1.
The upper limit requires some geometry constructions of 3 equally spaced tangent inscribed circles. My literal back of the envelope derivation got messy, but the result came out to 1/(16/(3+2*sqrt(3)))+1 or 14.928203235:1 I'll try to post a coherent derivation when I get it worked out nicely on something more legible. I should point out that these are the limits of the ratio, rather than achievable ratios under the stated conditions, as you would have gears or rollers moving in opposite directions in direct contact. Last edited by MechEng83 : 02282016 at 10:01 PM. Reason: Math error. 
#3




Re: STEM Quiz #1
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*I understand by definition gear ratios are integer ratios, but when reduced to the mechanical advantage factor, only evenly divisible ratios give integer results. Last edited by MechEng83 : 02282016 at 04:16 PM. 
#4




Re: STEM Quiz #1
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#5




Re: STEM Quiz #1
Forgot the plus 1 in my calculator when transcribing the upper limit. Should be 14.9282032303:1

#6




Re: STEM Quiz #1
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Gear ratios are always rational, that is ratios of integers, but not necessarily integers. It is possible to get close to the 6:1 and 8:1 integer ratios with a single stage 72t annular gear: with 10 teeth on the sun and 31 on the planets, a VPcompatible stage could be made with a gear ratio of 8.2:1; 14 on the sun and 29 on the planets would result in 6.14:1. If you wanted to make a single "exact" 6:1 or 8:1 ratio stage compatible with VP, the first step would be to make a (most likely) 70t annular gear. Then your sun gears would be 10 and 14 teeth. If you were to do this, your "nearly identical to the standard" annular gears would probably be quite unpopular unless you found some clever way (e.g. color or a milled exterior similar to a U.S. quarter) to make them look quite unlike the 72t annular gear. I concur that this is not likely to be commercially viable, as the existing VP ratios provide a maximum gap of 40% (5:1 to 7:1) for a single stage. Above 9:1 (allowing multiple stages), the maximum gap is 25% (12:1 to 15:1 and 16:1 to 20:1) below 20:1 and 20% above that (50:1 to 60:1). There are few applications that cannot be designed around a 20% gap in capabilities. 
#7




Re: STEM Quiz #1
That's the correct numeric value (with way more significant figures than I calculated), but still waiting on a proof.

#8




Re: STEM Quiz #1
Here's my MS Paint proof. I did the ratio in terms of radii of the gears.

#9




Re: STEM Quiz #1
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#10




Re: STEM Quiz #1
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They aren't actually half tooth planets, but the teeth of these gears presumably had to be adjusted somewhat to make this work. While I haven't examined a 9:1 VP, my guess is that it has 32 slightly shortened teeth. 
#11




Re: STEM Quiz #1
thanks!
I was going to assume 31 teeth and 3/4 tooth engagement. might be worth examining for future reference. either way it's not ideal. 
#12




Re: STEM Quiz #1
You realize you can have a planetary setup with only two planet gears, right? My old Milwaukee impact which bit the dust (motor side, not gearbox) uses this setup because it only requires 1 stage to achieve such a high ratio. Usually this is uncommon for packaging at the least, and I'm sure they're prone to jamming if not done properly (the setup for this one was quite good).
Meaning you have infinite possible reduction.. 
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