Output torque is always directly proportional to current draw. At stall, drawn current is directly proportional to voltage, so a stalled CIM will output 2.41 n-m at 12v, 1.205 n-m at 6v, 0.2 n-m at 1v, and so on and so forth.
If you want to know drawn current at a variety of motor speeds, you need to do some basic modeling. Instead of V=IR, you have to take back emf (the voltage generated by the spinning rotor) into account:
V-w*Ke = I*R
R = V_nominal/I_stall
Ke = (V_nominal + I_free + R)/(w_free)
In the case of a CIM,
R = 12/131
Ke = (12 + 2.7 + R)/(5330)
So, a CIM spinning at 2000 RPM with 8v of power applied will generate:
(8-2000*Ke) / R = 26.74 amps of current, which equates to
2.41/131*26.74 = 0.49 n-m of torque.
Limiting current in design is a great idea, and a good way to save battery and lengthen your motor’s life (and prevent burning them outright, especially in the case of 775s)