Does anyone know the distance from the starting points to the rockets and cargo bays?

Try this: Layout and Marking Diagram
Page 4 in particular.

The info for this is all in section 4.1 of the game manual. Giving specific answers is made even more difficult because the starting points is an area, and there are 20 cargo bays on each side of the field.

You can actually “measure” it yourself with the online CAD model: