If I understand your question correctly - your terminology is a little unconventional - the answer is yes, but there are easier ways to do what you’re getting at. Normally you refer to the wheel itself as the wheel, and the “circumference wheels” as rollers.
A mecanum or omni wheel is a wheel that can exert (or resist) force only in a positive or negative direction along a particular vector. For normally mounted mecanums those vectors are 45 degrees inward/frontward for the fronts and 45 degrees outward/forward for the rears. Omnis mounted with the wheel itself angled in/out at these angles give (neglecting roller friction losses) exactly the same relative force vectors. What matters is the direction forces can be transmitted to/from the ground, i.e. the direction of the roller axes at the point the rollers contact the ground. With some caveats, the angles between the wheels proper and the angles on which the wheels mount to the chassis are just mechanical details.
Defining “efficiency” in this context as the ratio of force in the direction the robot is being driven to torque at the wheel axle (/ the wheel radius), in the normal orientation the vectors are arranged to make these ratios as nearly equal as possible over all directions. For conventional mecanum and 45/45/45/45 omnis these ratios are .707 forward/back/sideways and .5 (average for all four wheels; half are 1, half are 0) diagonally.
You can indeed change these ratios by changing the roller/wheel angle. The as the angle between the conventionally mounted mecanum wheel axle and the roller axles increases from 45 degrees to 90 degrees, i.e. becomes an omni wheel, force efficiency increases toward 1 forward/back and decreases toward zero sideways.
I’ve not seen a non-45 mecanum, but you can get the same effect by changing the angle at which the mecanum or omni wheel itself is mounted to the chassis. Ignoring the angle of the wheel proper, look at the angle between travel direction and the roller axis, take cosines and sum for all wheels.